Overtourism and the big chill: Travel trends in 2018
Despite tourism boom, it is not all good news as the world's largest travel trade show reveals
The tourism industry is booming as travellers find more intrepid ways of exploring the globe and receding security fears revive old favourites.
But when industry professionals last week descended on Berlin for the ITB fair, the world's largest travel trade show, the news wasn't all good.
Some of the most popular destinations are becoming victims of their own success, leaving the sector scrambling to respond to concerns about overcrowding and environmental damage.
These are the top five travel trends of the year that dominated the event:
MIDDLE EAST COMEBACK
Egypt, Tunisia and Turkey suffered steep drops in visitor arrivals after a series of terror attacks and bouts of political instability.
But a period of relative calm has tempted tourists to set their fears aside and rediscover these classic destinations, lured by the promise of sun, sea and rock-bottom prices.
In Egypt alone, arrivals more than doubled last year, according to the World Tourism Organisation.
Tunisia, badly shaken by a museum attack and beach shooting in 2015 that together killed 60 people, saw tourist arrivals jump by more than a third last year.
The Palestinian territories are tipped as an up-and-coming destination, while Israel, despite a tense security situation, has seen a spike in bookings following a no-expense-spared promotion campaign.
THE BIG CHILL
Some of this year's hottest destinations are also the coldest, with growing numbers of holidaymakers prepared to shiver to experience the other-worldliness of Lapland, Greenland or Antarctica, or the breathtaking colour show of the Northern Lights.
Iceland owes its unprecedented tourism boom in part to Game Of Thrones fans eager to explore the wild landscapes that featured in the hit television show.
Last year, the country with fewer than 340,000 residents welcomed a staggering 2.5 million visitors.
While the money they bring may be welcome, the hordes of tourists in places like Iceland has sparked a backlash among locals, who complain that their nation's pristine locations are being overrun.
The grumbles have been even louder in perennially popular places such as Barcelona, Amsterdam and Venice, where residents are increasingly fed up with the crowds, the strain on public infrastructure and unaffordable rents as city centre flats become Airbnb holiday lets.
The authorities have started to take notice, vowing measures to curb the influx - and posing fresh challenges to the travel industry.
"So-called overtourism has become a major problem this year," the IPK International tourism consultancy said in a recent report.
"The industry urgently needs to find answers."
MIXING BUSINESS WITH PLEASURE
Flexible working hours and jobs that can be performed anywhere with Wi-Fi have blurred the lines between travelling for business and leisure.
These so-called "bleisure" travellers, mainly aged 18 to 34, are free to book a beach escape on a whim or tag a few extra days onto a business trip to do some sightseeing - so long as their tech needs are met.
Thailand, determined to tap into these affluent digital nomads, has embarked on a major push to boost its high-speed Internet infrastructure, including on its most remote and picturesque islands.
EVERY DROP COUNTS
Hotel guests have long been used to the little cards in the bathrooms asking them to re-use their towels.
But as environmental pressures grow, hotel chains and tour operators are bringing eco-friendly travel into the mainstream.
To encourage responsible water use, it is becoming increasingly rare to find large baths in hotel rooms, even in luxury establishments, according to specialist magazine Travel Weekly.
In drought-hit South Africa, hotels have taken action to reduce their laundry loads by switching to paper napkins and washing the linen less frequently.
In Norway, the government is planning new restrictions on cruise ships entering its spectacular fjords in a bid to lower harmful emissions and crack down on pollution. - AFP