A look at sexual misconduct policies of 5 universities abroad
The way the National University of Singapore (NUS) handled the case of the male undergraduate who filmed a female student in the shower without her consent has angered many.
NUS has apologised and promised to review its policy.
Here, The New Paper looks at the different sexual misconduct policies in some foreign universities.
THE CHINESE UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG (CUHK)
CUHK has a Committee Against Sexual Harassment helmed by professors in the school.
Once a complaint is lodged for alleged sexual harassment, two panellists of different sexes will form an investigation team, which may also include a student representative to assist.
Both parties will have the right to submit an appeal if they deem the investigation to be unfit, and upon this, another panel will be formed to hear the appeal submissions.
If the act of sexual harassment warrants possible disciplinary action, CUHK can also bypass the conciliation or investigation processes and proceed with disciplinary procedures directly.
YONSEI UNIVERSITY, SOUTH KOREA
In 2012, 46 cases of sexual harassment and assault were reported to the Yonsei Gender Equity Centre.
The school's methods in dealing with sexual harassment cases have gone through several modifications.
According to the severity of the offence, the punishment for a student offender can range from expulsion, suspension for four to five years (while the victim is attending school) and community service as well as mandatory education courses.
NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, UNITED STATES
A 36-page document on sexual misconduct details what constitutes sexual misconduct, as well as the support the victim can receive from the school.
Interim measures are in place during investigations, such as modifications of work or class schedules, campus escort services, restrictions on contact between the parties and increased security in certain parts of campus.
There is also a list of sanctions for sexual misconduct violations for both staff and students, such as verbal and written warnings, a disciplinary hold on academic or financial records, probation, demotion, suspension, expulsion and termination.
DURHAM UNIVERSITY, UNITED KINGDOM
A meeting can be called after criminal investigations to decide if the university can take action in the case of an acquittal or no further action by law enforcement authorities.
While the university cannot make a determination of criminal guilt, there will be an internal investigation to find out if there has been a breach of the campus' sexual violence and misconduct policy.
In the case where a student receives a caution from the police, the case may be considered a major offence and could result in expulsion.
THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA
Interim measures could be imposed on the alleged perpetrator to minimise the harm to the victim, such as suspension from certain parts of campus or restricted access to particular classes.
There are also different rule books that list down the penalties for misconduct in school for both staff and students.